Integrales Logistikmanagement — Operations Management und Supply Chain Management innerhalb des Unternehmens und unternehmens­übergreifend

Kapitel 8 – Das Konzept für die Prozessindustrie

Beabsichtigte Lernergebnisse: Charakteristiken der Prozessindustrie vorlegen. Die Prozessor-orientierte Stamm- und Auftragsdatenverwaltung aufzeigen. Das Prozessor-orientierte Ressourcen­management detailliert erklären. Besonderheiten der langfristigen Planung beschreiben.

Teilkapitel 8.1.1: Divergente Produktstrukturen und Kuppelprodukte

Intended learning outcomes: Explain the manufacture of by-products in chemical production.

Example for manufacture of by-products: Mineral oil
The preparation of mineral oil is a typical example of manufacture of by-products: a minimum of two products are produced at the same time in one step of a production process. The following Flash animation illustrates how a multitude of products are manufactured from a single base material (raw oil) in a production process that has many steps. The presentation clearly shows that manufacture of by-products is typically connected with divergent product structures. This is even more impressive considering that most refinery products are themselves raw materials for entire industries (e.g., plastics).

Teilkapitel 8.1.1: Divergente Produktstrukturen und Kuppelprodukte

Intended learning outcomes: Describe the manufacture of by-products in sheet metal working.

Exercise: Manufacture of by-products in mechanical industry
Try to produce a washer stamping pattern in such a way that the least amount of waste is produced. Be aware, however, that the need for the individual washers varies and over-production should be avoided.
The Flash animation shows a part of a continuous metal sheet from which the washers, etc. are cut.

Teilkapitel 8.1.2: Hochvolumige Linienproduktion, Fliessressourcen und inflexible Anlagen

Intended learning outcomes: Describe flow resources within a process stage. Explain the need for flexible capability of the production infrastructure in chemical production.

Example: Flow Resource
In practice, flow resources usually refers to fluids, gases or bulk goods that are moved forward between work centers and are not stored in-between, or to materials that cannot be stored, depending on the circumstances. From the point of view of planning and control, one result is that the stations connected to each other by the flow resources have to be considered as one unit. Thus, there is no freedom for individual capacity planning of each work center. The effects of even a temporary lapse in attention is shown in the following Flash animation in a drastic but thoroughly realistic way.

Teilkapitel 8.2.2: Der Prozesszug: eine prozessor-orientierte Produktionsstruktur

Intended learning outcomes: Describe the production structure in chocolate production. Explain the various manufacturing steps and stages in chocolate production.

Exercise: Explain the various manufacturing steps and stages in chocolate production
The following animation illustrates the process of manufacturing chocolate. The entire process is divided into three stages, each separated by a storage step. This allows the schedules to be set up individually for each stage and permits the selection of technologically and economically appropriate processing volumes for the individual stages.
(Sincere thanks go to Chocosuisse - - for providing both comprehensive information and photographs).

Teilkapitel 8.2.2: Der Prozesszug: eine prozessor-orientierte Produktionsstruktur

Intended learning outcomes: Explain the formalized process train with stages and basic manufacturing steps. Identify the recipe.

Exercise: Process train - formalized
Try to complete the empty boxes of the processor-oriented production structure.

Teilkapitel 8.3.1: Die Kampagnenplanung

Intended learning outcomes: Explain campaign planning using an example of a process chain in chemical production. Identify campaign cycles for the example and a minimum campaign of one day’s production. Describe how the process stages could be synchronized.

Exercise: Campaign cycle planning
Try to plan the campaign cycle of a two-step production (reactor and packaging) for four different products, each with two packaging options. You are the production manager. Before beginning with the planning task, take note of the constraints and hints offered.

Teilkapitel 8.3.3: Berücksichtigen einer nichtlinearen Verbrauchsmenge und einer Produktstruktur mit Schleifen

Intended learning outcomes: Present the quantity of a manufactured product P as a nonlinear function of the usage quantity of a resource R. Identify possible solutions of issues entailed by a nonlinear usage quantity.

Exercise: Process Train
In the following exercise, try to commission a very simplified continuous process, a process train of two manufacturing steps, and convert it to a steady operating state. As is often the case in practice, the criterion for product quality is the color of the products. Variation parameters are: the demand ratio to the raw materials and the holding time in the processors, which can be influenced by the demand quantity and the level. The goal of this task is to keep the amount of waste as small as possible.

Fallstudie: Konzepte für die Prozessindustrie

Bis jetzt haben Sie als Fallstudien verschiedene logistischen Probleme gelöst, welche hauptsächlich in Unternehmen mit konvergierenden Produktstrukturen auftreten (diskrete Fertigung bzw. Stückgutindustrie). Ein Blick auf die Prozessindustrie, in der Grundstoffe wie zum Beispiel Erdöl, Erdgas, Kohle, Energie oder Stahl produziert und weiterverarbeitet werden, verdeutlicht, dass die Produktstruktur einen grossen Einfluss auf die Produktionsinfrastruktur und das Produktionslayout ausübt. Dies führt zu besonderen Rahmenbedingungen, die im Operations und Supply Chain Management berücksichtigt werden müssen. Die prozessor-orientierte Produktion wirft Fragestellungen auf, die bei der diskreten Produktion kaum von Bedeutung sind.

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