Integral Logistics Management — Operations Management and Supply Chain Management Within and Across Companies

19.2.3 Project Scheduling and Project Effort Planning

Intended learning outcomes: Present in detail the schematic display of project effort per organizational unit. Explain an excerpt of the Gantt chart for the project “preliminary study for building conversion”.


Most representations used in project scheduling are graphic displays.

A Gantt chart is a planning board of schedule-related information, showing scheduling of tasks, work packages, or operations in the form of a bar chart.

Figure 19.2.3.1 shows a possible Gantt chart for the project “preliminary study for building conversion.” This Gantt chart also shows the project milestones MS (start), M1, M2, and ME (end). A master schedule in the form of a Gantt chart that identifies milestones only is called a milestone chart.

Fig. 19.2.3.1       Gantt chart for the project “preliminary study for building conversion” (excerpt).

A milestone chartshows the major deliverables on the time axis.

Under certain conditions, which do not have to apply in every project, a network planning technique can be used to aid project scheduling and control:

  • For every task or every work package, early start date and early finish date, as well as late start date and late finish date, can be calculated.
  • For every activity within a task or work package, the durations can be determined precisely enough.
  • The activities can be ordered in sequence, that is, for each activity, the activities that logically precede and succeed an activity can be displayed schematically. In Figure 19.2.3.1, starting out from the start, it must be determined for each activity what other activity triggers it and what activities it may trigger, or whether it leads to the end (the same is done for work packages).

Network planning techniques mainly determine the critical path. The critical path is the series of activities that determines the earliest completion of the project [PMBOK]. The critical path may change with time, especially when certain tasks, which lie on paths that were not yet critical in the first estimate calculated, are completed behind schedule.

Well-known network planning techniques are the Critical Path Method (CPM), the Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT), and the Critical Chain Method. These network planning techniques are described in more detail in Section 13.3.4.

Figure 19.2.3.2 shows a simple schematic display of project effort, which can be expressed in staff months.

Fig. 19.2.3.2       Effort per organizational unit.

This schematic representation also lists the deliverables L1.2, L2.2, and so on, as positions in project effort. This is in accordance with the fact that the completion of a deliverable can be connected with particular effort. In the example of Figure 19.2.3.2, this is almost always the effort required for the preparation of a document that requires the consent of all parties involved. Another example is the effort required for the stakeout of the proposed construction.

Effort is measured, for example, in staff days and can be added up for each task or work package. In the present example, the effort for subproject management for a task could be, for example, assigned to the group that has the greatest effort. In this case, that would be Group A for task 2, Group B for tasks 1 and 3, and Group C for task 4.

Based on the schematic representation, project resources, for example, can be released, in whole or part, for example, after completion of milestones, possibly in dependency on the quality of the deliverables. The consumption of resources can be measured accordingly.



Course section 19.2: Subsections and their intended learning outcomes

  • 19.2 Project Management

    Intended learning outcomes: Present goals and constraints of a project. Describe project phase, project life cycle, and work breakdown structure. Explain scheduling and effort planning as well as organization of a project. Differentiate between cost, benefits, profitability, and risk of a project.

  • 19.2.1 Goals and Constraints of a Project

    Intended learning outcomes: Produce an overview on project performance and project deliverables. Differentiate between external constraints and internal constraints in project management.

  • 19.2.2 Project Phase, Project Life Cycle, and Work Breakdown Structure

    Intended learning outcomes: Produce an overview on the project phases in a generic project life cycle. Describe the increasing degree of detail of tasks and work packages in a work breakdown structure. Present an excerpt from a work breakdown structure for the preliminary study for a building conversion.

  • 19.2.3 Project Scheduling and Project Effort Planning

    Intended learning outcomes: Present in detail the schematic display of project effort per organizational unit. Explain an excerpt of the Gantt chart for the project “preliminary study for building conversion”.

  • 19.2.4 Project Organization

    Intended learning outcomes: Differentiate between project coordination in a functional, or line, organization and project management in a project-based organization. Describe project management in a strong matrix organization.

  • 19.2.5 Project Cost, Project Benefits, Project Profitability, and Project Risk

    Intended learning outcomes: Produce an overview on the total cost of ownership of a project. Explain the Matrix for estimating the project benefit of an investment in a software system as well as the graphic representation in overlay of nine profitability calculations, for cumulative benefits with degrees of realization 1 to 9. Identify NPV, the net present value technique. Present the issue of project risk management.

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