Integral Logistics Management — Operations Management and Supply Chain Management Within and Across Companies

19.2.2 Project Phase, Project Life Cycle, Project Task, Work Package, Statement of Work

Intended learning outcomes: Produce an overview on the project phases in a generic project life cycle. Identify project task, work package, and statement of work.

Deliverables are produced at the end of a project but also as the result of individual phases within the project.

A project phase is a major part of a project. Collectively, the project phases are called the project life cycle.

Figure shows the project phases in a sample generic project life cycle. See here [PMBOKD or PBMOK, Section 2.1].

Fig.       Project phases in a generic project life cycle (Source: PMBOK).

The intermediate phases will differ depending on the type of project. For example, if the goal is realization of a system, the different life cycle phases shown in Figure, from preliminary study to establishment of the system, can be seen as system development. Figure showed the life cycle phases of a project in software development. Possible life cycle phases of classical product design are concept development, product planning, process planning, building prototypes, pilot production, and ramp up.

The product life cycle in Figure can be accompanied by several project life cycles. An initial project handles product design and a fur­ther project the development of services, that is, additional services con­nected with the product. Another project can aim at further development.

In project management, a program is a group of related projects. The term is then synonymous with a project, mostly a large project.

An example of a program is the NASA Space Shuttle program. The project itself is subdivided into smaller units.

A (project) task is a subset of a project, having a duration of a number of months, for example, and carried out by a certain group or organization. A task can also be subdivided into a number of subtasks.

A work package is a set of activities assigned to the manager of a component of the project and, if possible, also to an organizational unit. Work packages are deliverables, defined in as much detail as possible, at the lowest level of the Work Breakdown Structure. A work package has a cost budget, scheduled start date, scheduled finish date, and project milestones, that is, the specific events in the project — usually completion of major deliverables.

Whenever possible, a project should begin with a statement of work.

A statement of work is the “first project planning document that should be prepared. It describes the purpose, history, deliverables, and measurable success indicators for a project. It captures the support required from the customer and identifies contingency plans for events that could throw the project off course” ([ASCM22]).

The statement of work thus serves management as the basis for decision making. The logical relationships of a project, that is, the tasks and work packages, are called the work breakdown structure.

Continuation in next subsection (19.2.2b).

Course section 19.2: Subsections and their intended learning outcomes

  • 19.2 Project Management

    Intended learning outcomes: Present goals and constraints of a project. Describe project phase, project life cycle, and work breakdown structure. Explain scheduling and effort planning as well as organization of a project. Differentiate between cost, benefits, profitability, and risk of a project.

  • 19.2.1 Goals and Constraints of a Project

    Intended learning outcomes: Produce an overview on project performance and project deliverables. Differentiate between external constraints and internal constraints in project management.

  • 19.2.2 Project Phase, Project Life Cycle, Project Task, Work Package, Statement of Work

    Intended learning outcomes: Produce an overview on the project phases in a generic project life cycle. Identify project task, work package, and statement of work.

  • 19.2.2b The Work Breakdown Structure

    Intended learning outcomes: Describe the increasing degree of detail of tasks and work packages in a work breakdown structure. Present an excerpt from a work breakdown structure for the preliminary study for a building conversion.

  • 19.2.3 Project Scheduling and Project Effort Planning

    Intended learning outcomes: Present in detail the schematic display of project effort per organizational unit. Explain an excerpt of the Gantt chart for the project “preliminary study for building conversion”.

  • 19.2.4 Project Organization

    Intended learning outcomes: Differentiate between project coordination in a functional, or line, organization and project management in a project-based organization. Describe project management in a strong matrix organization.

  • 19.2.5 Project Cost

    Intended learning outcomes: Produce an overview on the total cost of ownership of a project.

  • 19.2.5b Project Benefits and Project Profitability

    Intended learning outcomes: Explain the Matrix for estimating the project benefit of an investment in a software system as well as the graphic representation in overlay of nine profitability calculations, for cumulative benefits with degrees of realization 1 to 9.