Integral Logistics Management — Operations Management and Supply Chain Management Within and Across Companies

4.3.2 Manufacturing Processes, Service Processes, and Service Blueprinting in the Company-Internal and Transcorporate Layout

Intended learning outcomes: Differentiate between a manufacturing process and a service process. Describe the company-internal layout with an example process. Explain the collaborative service blueprint with an example process.

A manufacturing process is the series of operations performed on material to convert it from the raw material or a semifinished state to a state of further completion ([APIC16]).

A service process is the series of operations performed for customer service or customer support.

A layout shows the “geography” of resources involved in the manufac­turing or service process — both company-internal and transcorporate.

One layout may show, for example, the “geography” of a supply chain, while another may depict company-internal “geography.” The actual course of an order is then drawn into the layout. From this, it is easy to see intuitively the limits of the production infrastructure and to spot areas for improvement. After changing the layout, the new process is then charted. The “new” can now be compared to the “old.” Transcorporate layouts are usually diagrammed as maps showing the various sites. The flow of an order is drawn in with arrows that connect the sites. Figure shows a company-internal layout.

Fig.        Company-internal layout with an example process.

Service blueprinting is a technique used for analyzing service processes. The service blueprint usually makes a distinction between customer actions and service provider actions that are visible to the customer and service provider actions that are backstage, or not visible to the customer. Lines of interaction show the form of customer involvement and points of customer contact. Beyond that, using special symbols, the tool can identify frequently occurring fail points and important decisions in the service process (cf. [APIC16]).

Figure shows a “collaborative (service) blueprint” following [Hart04]. This type of service blueprint is especially useful when service delivery is distributed across several companies or cooperation partners, which is a development that is frequently seen today especially in service in the area of machinery and plant manufacturing.

Fig.        Example of a service process represented graphically as a collaborative service blueprint following [Hart04].

The horizontal axis shows the course of service provision over time. The part-processes are assigned to the companies involved, the organizational units, on the vertical axis. The arrows between individual actions indicate the information flows. This creates transparency about the division of tasks between the companies involved in the service processes and their resource needs.

Course section 4.3: Subsections and their intended learning outcomes

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