Integral Logistics Management — Operations Management and Supply Chain Management Within and Across Companies

15.4.2b Load Building

Intended learning outcomes: Explain load building. Identify the levels of aggregation in load building.

Continuation from previous subsection (15.4.2)

Load building is the grouping and consolidating of items for transport.
The load unit is the grouping of packing units for transport.

Packing units are placed on or in unit-load supports, such as pallets, trays, or containers, and secured with load stabilizers (bands, lashing belts, adhesives, stretch wrap, and so on), to facilitate handling, storage, and transport. The choice of the unit loading aid is highly dependent on the specific means of transportation (see Section 15.3). For truck trailer transport, for example, pallets are used, whereas containers are frequently used for air or sea freight.

The transport unit is the number of load units per unit of the means of transportation (container, truck, rail wagon, etc.).

This process of successive consolidating is shown in Figure

Fig.       Levels of aggregation in load building.

The necessary accompanying documents must be readied during the packaging process or, at the latest, during load building. These may include item-related instructions for use or transport-related documents such as bills of delivery, export authorization, export transfer notes, certificates of origin, international customs declarations, and the like.

Interactions between packing units, load units, transport units, and the logistics system will significantly influence economic efficiency. For example, optimal packaging allows improved and more cost-effective transport, savings in (intermediate) storage costs, and even improved sales of the packaged product. Understanding and taking into account all of these factors can result in satisfactory economic efficiency.

Course section 15.4: Subsections and their intended learning outcomes

  • 15.4 Distribution Control

    Intended learning outcomes: Explain order picking, packaging, load building, and transportation to receiver.

  • 15.4.1 Order Picking

    Intended learning outcomes: Explain discrete order picking and batch picking. Describe sequential picking and zone picking. Differentiate between decentralized goods preparation and centralized goods preparation.

  • 15.4.2 Packaging

    Intended learning outcomes: Present a conceptual framework to handle the diverse functions and requirements of packaging.

  • 15.4.2b Load Building

    Intended learning outcomes: Explain load building. Identify the levels of aggregation in load building.