Intended learning outcomes: Present terms of the working environment, such as work, task, function, order, procedure, process, method, object, business.
With designing of organizations, there is (too) frequent confusion among the terms task, function, and process (as well as task orientation, function orientation, and process orientation). By referring to etymological dictionaries, such as [MeWe18], and dictionaries of related words and meanings, we can find out how people normally understand the terms. While some branches of science traditionally give terms their own definitions, such definitions are arbitrary. However, a company best takes its orientation from everyday understanding, and uses definitions of terms that will be generally understood.
Figure 220.127.116.11 defines the basic terms of the working environment.
|Term||Word origin, definition||Related terms|
|work||old: travail, toil, drudgery, exertion of strength|
new: employment, activity that leads to an achievement
but also: something produced by mental effort or physical labor
|task||a piece of work that needs to be done regularly||function; order; assignment|
|function||the particular purpose for which a person or thing is specially fitted or used or for which a thing exists||task; purpose|
|order||a direction to buy or sell goods||task|
|procedure||a series of steps followed in a regular order||process|
|process||a series of actions or operations directed toward a particular result||procedure; course of action|
|method||a procedure or process for achieving an end |
also: orderly arrangement
|object||something that may be seen or felt; |
also: something that may be perceived or examined mentally
|business||something to be dealt with; task; concern; |
new: a commercial or industrial activity or organization
Fig. 18.104.22.168 Basic terms used in the working environment.
The most important finding here is that the word work contains both the character of a process and of content and result. This dualityseems to be fundamental. The content of work, that is, its purpose or objective, is often expressed as task. The term function is clearly related to task. Function more strongly refers to the result of work, while task is more work’s content and purpose, whereby each term includes the other. An order arises when a task is assigned to someone else.
Procedure and process are practically synonymous and stand in dualityto the terms task and function. In most cases, a task or function can be structured as a sequence or as a net of subtasks, or subfunctions, and thus thought of as a process. Turned around, a process is usually seen as various works progressing in a certain sequence. Each of these works may be seen as a task or function, or as a part of such. Of course, there exist tasks and functions that finally are “nuclear” — they cannot be broken down further. In the area of company strategy, but also in R&D, we find tasks that are difficult to break down.
Note that business refers to the central term work, whereby in today’s usage, business means tradable work according to its new definition.
The following animation presents the basic term work, to which all other terms refer, as well as the terms task, function, order, course of action (procedure), and process .
To get more informations roll over the terms.
Continuation in next subsection (1.1.1b).
Course section 1.1: Subsections and their intended learning outcomes
1.1 Basic Definitions, Issues, and Challenges
Intended learning outcomes: Produce an overview on terms of the working environment and of business life. Explain service orientation in the classical industry, product orientation in the service industry, and the industrial product-service system. Disclose the product life cycle, the synchronization of supply and demand, and the role of inventories. Produce an overview on supply chain management, the role of planning and control as well as the SCOR model.
1.1.1 Work, Task, Process, Method, Object, etc. — Important Terms of the Working Environment
Intended learning outcomes: Produce an overview on terms of the working environment, such as work, task, function, order, procedure, process, method, object, business.
1.1.1b Value-Added, Business Process, Material, Product, etc. — Important Terms of Business Life
Intended learning outcomes: Produce an overview on terms of business life, such as value-added, business process, business method, business object, goods, item, part, component, material, product, artifact, management, etc.
1.1.2 Service and Servitization — Service Orientation in the Classical Industry
Intended learning outcomes: Present terms of the service domain such as service, customer service, service in the originary sense, servitization. Differentiate between a (primary, or core) product, a product in a broad sense, and a product in the most comprehensive sense.
1.1.3 The Service Industry and Industrialization of Service — Product Orientation in the Service Industry
Intended learning outcomes: Differentiate between service industry and classical (or conventional) industry. Produce an overview on industrialization of service.
1.1.4 The Industrial Product-Service System IPSS (or IPS2)
Intended learning outcomes: Present the industrial product-service system. Explain product-oriented, use-oriented, and result-oriented services as well as their degree of intangibility.
1.1.5 The Product Life Cycle, and the Role of Logistics and Operations Management
Intended learning outcomes: Produce an overview on the product life cycle. Differentiate between terms such as logistics, operations, logistic management, operations management, and value-added management.
1.1.6 The Customer Tolerance Time (or Demand Lead Time), and the Role of Inventories
Intended learning outcomes: Describe supply, demand, lead time, and customer tolerance time. Explain the problem of temporal synchronization between supply and demand as well as the role of various kinds of inventories in solving this problem.
1.1.7 The Extended Enterprise — Logistics Networks, Logistics Systems or Logistic Chains
Intended learning outcomes: Describe the reasons for an extended enterprise. Differentiate between a logistics network, a production network, a procurement network, a distribution network, and a service network.
1.1.7b The Supply Chain, Supply Chain Management, and Integral Logistics Management
Intended learning outcomes: Describe the concept of the supply chain. Produce an overview on supply chain management and on integral logistics management.
1.1.8 Supply Chain Planning and the Planning & Control System
Intended learning outcomes: Produce an overview on supply chain planning. Differentiate between production planning and control (PPC) and a PPC system.
1.1.8b The SCOR Model
Intended learning outcomes: Present the Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) model. Describe levels 1 and 2 of the actual SCOR model.